The Colline district of Livorno takes its name from the old Porta alle Colline, the Livorno customs gate which stood where Via Gramsci finishes today, near the hospital. Until the early 1900s this gateway was known in Livorno as the Porta ai Sughi because it was here, against the walls built by the Lorraines, that the local farms used to deposit their manure to be used later during the sowing season.
Subsequently, the Colline area began to be built up, and in 1811, following the opening of the railway line connecting Rome and Genoa, building expanded towards the railway. Via di Salviano was the most important road because it connected the Colline district and the city with outlying districts of Livorno and with Salviano. This was also the route used to transport most of the goods heading for Livorno's city centre.
Following the Second World War the area developed further, with the growth of artisan and commercial activities, due also to the development of the adjoining Coteto district which was begun in 1956. This area was particularly good for farming, and wheat especially was grown here.