There has been a considerable Jewish community in Livorno since the 17th century, at one time representing 10% of the population. At a time when the persecution of Jews was taking place elsewhere, Livorno represented a haven where people of the Jewish faith could practice their religion freely, build their own synagogue, buy property and, most unusually, were not confined to a ghetto. All this because of Ferdinando I de’ Medici’s invitation to Sephardic Jews to come and settle in Livorno where he realised they could be beneficial to the development of this newly established town. The conditions he offered proved attractive: in 1601 the Jewish community in Livorno numbered 114, and by 1689 it had increased to 3000.
An increasing number of highly skilled Jewish merchants and entrepreneurs settled in Livorno, specialising mainly in textile and glass manufacturing, as well as in the working of coral , sugar refining, tobacco and paper production , and the distillation of spirits. In the 19th century most of the books in the Mediterranean area were printed in Livorno and some of the most famous printers were Jewish, like the Sadun and Belforte families. The synagogue that was built during the 17th century was one of the finest and well-known in Europe. Sadly, it was badly damaged during WWII and, instead of being restored, was replaced by a modern synagogue in the 1960s.
Famous Jews from Livorno include artists Amedeo Modigliani, Vittorio Corcos, Ulvi Liegi, and the writer Guido Bedarida who died in 1962.
Visiting Jewish Livorno
The Synagogue in Piazza Benamozegh can be visited by appointment, so be sure to arrange this before you arrive in Livorno. The modern building was designed by Jewish architect Angelo Di Castro and contains a beautiful 17th-century Haron which was presented to Livorno by the synagogue in Pesaro.
To see the old furnishings from Livorno’s original 17th-century synagogue you need to go to the Yeshivà Marini museum in Via Micali (also by appointment only). The exhibits include a noteworthy wooden hekhàl, works of embroidery and objects made from coral.
Two of the original four Jewish cemeteries still survive today: one in Viale Ippolito Nievo which dates from 1840 and contains the tombs of Elijah Benamozegh, Israel Costa, the Montefiore and Belforte families, and the Attias family chapel. Recent restoration work (2015) has seen repairs to the boundary wall and the entrance gate.
The most recent Jewish cemetery in Livorno, and one that is still active, is the "Lupi" Jewish cemetery, dating from 1901. It was designed by Adriano Padova and contains a number of 17th-century tombstones that were moved here from the older cemeteries that have now disappeared. It contains the Chayes family mausoleum and the tomb of Rabbi Elio Toaff.
Works by the Jewish artists living in Livorno in the 19th-20th centuries can be seen at the Fattori Gallery housed in Villa Mimbelli. Modigliani’s birthplace, on the other hand, is at the beginning of Via Roma, just near Piazza Attias, and can be visited every morning from 10.30am to 12.30pm (5 euros).
Synagogue of Livorno, Piazza Benamozegh 1 (between Via Grande and Via Cairoli). Tel. +(39) 0586 896290
(bus LAM Rossa & No. 6)
Yeshivà Marini museum, Via Micali 21. For appointments contact the official guide association at email@example.com
Modigliani's Birthplace: Via Roma 38, Livorno (Bus Lam Rossa)
Jewish Cemetery in Viale Ippolito Nievo (Bus LAM Rossa)
RESEARCHING YOUR LIVORNO FAMILY HISTORY?
I can highly recommend the services of professional genealogy researcher, Matteo Giunti, who is based in Livorno.
To contact Matteo write directly to: firstname.lastname@example.org
We have evidence that there were Barda members in Tuscany prior to 1800. After that date the family moved to Egypt. Is there a possibility of obtaining records for the period prior to 1800?
Dear Friends in Livorno
My father's family are coming from Livorno. I am looking for the roots of Soria family who lived in Livorno till 1948. My grandfather - David Soria - was an Aushwitz survivor and was honoured by the Livorno city hall as a hero. I am looking for archive info about this family and about David Soria.
David Soria (Ben Zur)
I will visit Livorno in October. My great-grandmother's sister Jane Stefanini (born Hart, 12 May 1860 in Middlesex, England) married Lorenzo Stefanini, She died in Livorno on 14 January 1910. The Hart family was Jewish but I don't know if Jane remained Jewish or converted to marry Lorenzo.
I am trying to find out where Jane may be buried, whether Lorenzo was from Livorno or elsewhere in Italy, and about any Stefanini family links in Livorno. Lorenzo Stefanini was born 1855 in Italy and died in 1928 Australia. I don't know if they met and married in England or in Italy. Jane's family (my great-grandmother included) moved to Australia and I suspect that after Jane died in Italy, Lorenzo decided to move to join her family.
Any information would be welcome, thank you
Dear Susan, please write to me directly at email@example.com and I will direct you to the right person to help you with your family research. Thank you. Sarah